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Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs) or TMJ Dysfunction

Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a group of related musculoskeletal conditions affecting the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and associated structures. They are one of the most common causes of chronic orofacial pain. TMDs share clinical features, such as pain in the TMJ and surrounding structures, limitation of jaw movements, and/or sounds (such as clicking, popping, grating, or crepitus) from the TMJ.

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating condition, characterised by pain in a limb, in association with sensory, vasomotor, sudomotor, motor and dystrophic changes. It commonly arises after an injury to that limb. Pain is typically the leading symptom of CRPS but is often associated with limb dysfunction and psychological distress. Patients frequently report neglect-like symptoms or a feeling that the limb is ‘alien’.

Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive capsulitis)

The terms adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder and periarthritis have been used for patients with shoulder pain and mobility deficits. Adhesive capsulitis is defined as having at least 1 month of shoulder pain, an inability to lie on the affected side, and restricted active and passive shoulder motion in 3 or more planes.

Shoulder Pain

Shoulder pain is defined as chronic when it has been present for longer than six months. Common conditions that can result in chronic shoulder pain include rotator cuff disorders, adhesive capsulitis, shoulder instability, and shoulder arthritis. Rotator cuff disorders include tendinopathy, partial tears, and complete tears.

Golfer’s Elbow

Epicondylitis is one of the most common elbow problems in adults, occurring both laterally and medially. Medial epicondylitis of the elbow, commonly referred to as 'golfer's elbow,' is characterized by pathologic changes to the musculotendonous origin at the medial epicondyle.

Trochanteric Bursitis

Trochanteric bursitis is a term used to describe chronic, intermittent pain accompanied by tenderness to palpation overlying the lateral aspect of the hip. First described by Stegemann in 1923, trochanteric bursitis has been referred to as the "Great Mimicker" because it is frequently mistaken for other conditions. Yet, the term 'trochanteric bursitis' may in fact be a misnomer given that three of the cardinal symptoms of inflammation, erythema, edema and rubor are uncommon.

SacroIliac Joint Pain

The relationship between the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and low back pain has been a subject of much debate with some researchers regarding SIJ pain as a major contributor to the low back pain problem, with others regarding it as unimportant or irrelevant. The sacroiliac joint has been shown to be a source of pain in 10% to 27% of suspected cases with chronic low back pain utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks.

Knee Pain

Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent form of arthritis, with an associated risk of mobility disability (defined as needing help with walking or climbing stairs) for those with affected knees being greater than that due to any other medical condition in people aged ≥ 65. Osteoarthritis of the knee causes pain, limits activity, and impairs quality of life. The societal burden (both in terms of personal suffering and use of health resources) is expected to increase with the increasing prevalence of obesity and the ageing of the community.


Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common condition to affect synovial joints and causes significant dysfunction and disability. Because osteoarthritis increases significantly with age, it was long considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of ageing and trauma. However, it is viewed now as a metabolically dynamic process characterized by an imbalance of joint breakdown in association with a maladaptive and insufficient repair process.

Tennis Elbow

Lateral epicondylitis, or 'tennis elbow', is a common condition that usually affects patients between 35 and 55 years of age. It is generally self-limiting, but in some patients it may continue to cause persistent symptoms, which can be refractory to treatment.