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Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common condition to affect synovial joints and causes significant dysfunction and disability. Because osteoarthritis increases significantly with age, it was long considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of ageing and trauma. However, it is viewed now as a metabolically dynamic process characterized by an imbalance of joint breakdown in association with a maladaptive and insufficient repair process.

Failed Back Surgery

Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a term embracing a constellation of conditions that describes persistent or recurring low back pain, with or without sciatica following one or more spine surgeries. In other words failed back surgery syndrome results when the outcome of lumbar spinal surgery does not meet the pre-surgical expectations of the patient and surgeon.

Spinal Stenosis

Lumbar spinal stenosis is a condition that involves narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve root canals, or tunnels of the intervertebral foramina. This narrowing can cause pressure on, or compression of, the neural elements. Patients may be symptomatic despite minimal compression and conversely those with high degrees of compression may be asymptomatic.


Cervical spondylosis is a common degenerative condition of the cervical spine. It is most likely caused by age-related changes and mechanical factors are prominent.

Whiplash Injury

Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) presents a significant public health problem and socioeconomic burden. Although it is widely held that the majority of whiplash patients recover naturally within a few months after their injury, recent research suggests that recovery is more prolonged and incomplete than previously believed, with an estimated 50% of patients still complaining of neck pain one year after injury.

Neck Pain

Chronic neck pain is a common condition and is perhaps second only to chronic low back pain as the most common musculoskeletal disorder associated with injury and disability claims. About two thirds of the population have neck pain at some time in their lives, and prevalence is highest in middle age. Most causes of neck pain are not serious though rarely it may be secondary to more serious condition.