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Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive capsulitis)

The terms adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder and periarthritis have been used for patients with shoulder pain and mobility deficits. Adhesive capsulitis is defined as having at least 1 month of shoulder pain, an inability to lie on the affected side, and restricted active and passive shoulder motion in 3 or more planes.

Shoulder Pain

Shoulder pain is defined as chronic when it has been present for longer than six months. Common conditions that can result in chronic shoulder pain include rotator cuff disorders, adhesive capsulitis, shoulder instability, and shoulder arthritis. Rotator cuff disorders include tendinopathy, partial tears, and complete tears.


Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common condition to affect synovial joints and causes significant dysfunction and disability. Because osteoarthritis increases significantly with age, it was long considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of ageing and trauma. However, it is viewed now as a metabolically dynamic process characterized by an imbalance of joint breakdown in association with a maladaptive and insufficient repair process.