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Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs) or TMJ Dysfunction

Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a group of related musculoskeletal conditions affecting the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and associated structures. They are one of the most common causes of chronic orofacial pain. TMDs share clinical features, such as pain in the TMJ and surrounding structures, limitation of jaw movements, and/or sounds (such as clicking, popping, grating, or crepitus) from the TMJ.

Supraorbital Neuralgia

Supraorbital neuralgia is characterized by persistent pain in the supraorbital region and forehead with occasional sudden, shocklike paresthesias in the distribution of the supraorbital nerve. Supraorbital neuralgia is the result of compression or trauma of the supraorbital nerves as the nerves exit the supraorbital foramen.

Chronic Facial Pain

Chronic orofacial pain (COFP) is an umbrella term used to describe painful regional syndromes with a chronic, unremitting pattern. It is an ill understood group of conditions, which may involve the whole of the mouth and face. Prevalence of orofacial pain is around 17–26%, of which 7–11% is chronic.

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare, episodic facial pain that is unilateral, electric shock-like, and provoked by light touch. At first, it is often mistaken as a tooth problem owing to its presentation in the two lower branches of the trigeminal nerve. Patients may undergo unnecessary and sometimes irreversible dental treatment before the condition is recognised.