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Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating condition, characterised by pain in a limb, in association with sensory, vasomotor, sudomotor, motor and dystrophic changes. It commonly arises after an injury to that limb. Pain is typically the leading symptom of CRPS but is often associated with limb dysfunction and psychological distress. Patients frequently report neglect-like symptoms or a feeling that the limb is ‘alien’.

Golfer’s Elbow

Epicondylitis is one of the most common elbow problems in adults, occurring both laterally and medially. Medial epicondylitis of the elbow, commonly referred to as 'golfer's elbow,' is characterized by pathologic changes to the musculotendonous origin at the medial epicondyle.

Phantom Limb Pain

Phantom-limb pain is a common sequela of amputation, occurring in up to 80% of people who undergo the procedure. It must be differentiated from non-painful phantom phenomena, residual-limb pain, and non-painful residual-limb phenomena. Central changes seem to be a major determinant of phantom-limb pain; however, peripheral and psychological factors may contribute to it.

Tennis Elbow

Lateral epicondylitis, or 'tennis elbow', is a common condition that usually affects patients between 35 and 55 years of age. It is generally self-limiting, but in some patients it may continue to cause persistent symptoms, which can be refractory to treatment.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a poorly characterized disease entity with a wide differential diagnosis. First coined in 1956 by Peet et al, TOS can be categorized as vascular (arterial or venous) or neurogenic (NTOS). Although vascular-related TOS pathology is intuitively easier to understand and document because of more definitive imaging findings and symptoms, there remains significant controversy as to even the existence of NTOS.

Failed Back Surgery

Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a term embracing a constellation of conditions that describes persistent or recurring low back pain, with or without sciatica following one or more spine surgeries. In other words failed back surgery syndrome results when the outcome of lumbar spinal surgery does not meet the pre-surgical expectations of the patient and surgeon.