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Pelvic fooor hypertonicity (tight pelvic floor muscles)

A hypertonic pelvic floor occurs when the muscles in the pelvic floor become too tense and are unable to relax. Many people with a tense and non-relaxing pelvic floor experience pelvic health concerns such as constipation, painful sex, urgency and pelvic pain. A hypertonic pelvic floor may also be accompanied by tension in surrounding hip and pelvic muscles such as the piriformis, obturator internus, coccygeus and hamstrings.

Vulval Pain (Vulvodynia)

Vulval pain is a common gynecologic complaint. Studies of the general population have estimated that chronic vulvar pain is present in 8% to 15%1–3 of reproductive-aged women. It is neuropathic pain of at least 3 months duration that has recognised associated factors but the underlying cause of the condition is unclear.

Genitofemoral Neuralgia

Genitofemoral neuralgia is a cause of neuropathic pain that is often debilitating in nature. It is characterized by chronic neuropathic groin pain that is localized along the distribution of the genitofemoral nerve. Genitofemoral neuropathy has been attributed to iatrogenic nerve injury occurring during inguinal and femoral herniorrhaphy, with cases developing after both open and laparoscopic techniques. Diagnosis of genitofemoral neuralgia can be challenging, due to the overlap in sensory distribution the nerve shares with the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve.

Pudendal Neuralgia

Pudendal neuralgia (PN) is defined as the existence of pain in the distribution of the pudendal nerve. Pudendal neuropathy can occur in both genders. Entrapment of the pudendal nerve can give rise to perineal pain involving the penis, scrotum, labia, perineum, or anorectal region. Three sites of entrapment of the nerve have been described. These can occur along its path between the sacrotuberous and the sacrospinous ligaments (interligamentous plane), through Alcock canal, or as the nerve passes through a tight osteofibrotic canal at the entrance to the base of the penis.