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Thoracic Back Pain

Spinal pain is a well recognised condition associated with significant personal and community burdens. The most common spinal regions studied are the lumbar and cervical spine, probably because of their strong and well-established associations with pain conditions, work-related injuries, intervertebral disc degenerative conditions, headaches and psychosocial disturbances. Compared to the lumbar and cervical spine, the thoracic spine has received less attention in terms of clinical, genetic and epidemiologic research, yet pain experienced in the thoracic spine can be equally disabling, imposing similar burdens on the individual, community and workforce.

Dorsal Scapular Nerve Entrapment Syndrome

Dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) entrapment syndrome is an under-recognized cause of neck and shoulder pain. DSN injuries can be the origin of a well-defined chronic pain syndrome, often referred to as DSN syndrome. DSN syndrome is often characterized by a dull ache along the medial border of the scapula. The dorsal scapular nerve may be injured in the neck (at the scalenes) or in the thoracic back at the level of the rhomboids.

SacroIliac Joint Pain

The relationship between the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and low back pain has been a subject of much debate with some researchers regarding SIJ pain as a major contributor to the low back pain problem, with others regarding it as unimportant or irrelevant. The sacroiliac joint has been shown to be a source of pain in 10% to 27% of suspected cases with chronic low back pain utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks.


Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common condition to affect synovial joints and causes significant dysfunction and disability. Because osteoarthritis increases significantly with age, it was long considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of ageing and trauma. However, it is viewed now as a metabolically dynamic process characterized by an imbalance of joint breakdown in association with a maladaptive and insufficient repair process.

Lumbosacral Plexopathy

Lumbosacral plexopathy is an injury to or involvement of one or more nerves that combine to form or branch from the lumbosacral plexus. This involvement is distal to the root level.

Failed Back Surgery

Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a term embracing a constellation of conditions that describes persistent or recurring low back pain, with or without sciatica following one or more spine surgeries. In other words failed back surgery syndrome results when the outcome of lumbar spinal surgery does not meet the pre-surgical expectations of the patient and surgeon.

Herniated Discs (Disc Prolapse)

Disc herniation is a broad term referring to a tear in the outer ring (annulus, thus allowing the soft gelatinous matter to leak out through the tear.

Spinal Stenosis

Lumbar spinal stenosis is a condition that involves narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve root canals, or tunnels of the intervertebral foramina. This narrowing can cause pressure on, or compression of, the neural elements. Patients may be symptomatic despite minimal compression and conversely those with high degrees of compression may be asymptomatic.


Cervical spondylosis is a common degenerative condition of the cervical spine. It is most likely caused by age-related changes and mechanical factors are prominent.


The term sciatica describes leg pain with or without back pain. It may be accompanied by other symptoms including tingling, burning and weakness in the leg. It is generally one sided and typically involves the buttock and the back of the leg up to the ankle or the foot. Most patients with sciatica improve within 6 to 12 weeks and do not need any specific treatment except painkillers. In some patients sciatica may persist and become more intrusive with daily activities.

Back Pain

Low back pain is pain, muscle tension, or stiffness in the lower back with or without leg pain (sciatica). It is defined as chronic when it persists for 12 weeks or more. Non-specific low back pain is pain not attributed to a recognisable pathology (such as infection, tumour, osteoporosis, fracture or inflammation).